Federal law states that eligibility for SLD must consider a student’s response to intervention or classroom instruction, commonly called Response to Intervention or Multi-Tiered Systems of Support . These terms reference educational research demonstrating that appropriate early intervention, provided in kindergarten through grade three, is very effective in closing the gap for struggling readers. 讀寫障礙評估 or additional direct instruction should begin as early as kindergarten or first grade for struggling readers when the gap is small and students benefit from brain plasticity advantages for learning language-based information.
Evaluations of your child’s reading skills, other academic skills and mental health will help your child’s teachers develop an individual teaching program. Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to read and read better. Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. Thank you for such a tremendous article and visuals that explain the process for assessing students exhibiting deficits in reading and spelling skills! The information is needed in most schools where the evaluators have had little training in understanding the characteristics of dyslexia and the importance of early diagnosis. A formal measure of intelligence is not always needed to document average intellectual abilities.
Comprehensive testing can take longer, especially with non-psychologists involved, but this is still less than a day total. As one clinic in Australia points out, a complete assessment with intelligence testing and academic strengths tests takes hours of a psychologist’s time. In other words, it takes up to two working days by the time a report is written. Some tests can assess a child’s ability to read rapidly and quickly. Offer encouragement by praising your child’s talents and strengths. Talk to the school staff so they can provide the services and support that your child needs to succeed.
It also makes it difficult for students to do well on timed tests. Students with both the naming speed deficit and the phonological processing deficit are considered to have a “double deficit.” Students with the double deficit have more severe difficulties than those with only one of the two. There is often confusion about the terms used to label or describe a reading problem. Clinicians and researchers use different terminology than the schools. For example, medical professionals, psychologists, and other practitioners outside of the school often use the term dyslexia, reading disorder, and specific learning disorder.
Timed tests of real and nonsense word reading provide information as to whether the student has fluency in word identification. Oral language, simply stated, refers to our ability to listen to and understand speech as well as to express our thoughts through speech. Oral language is made up of low-level skills, such as recognizing and making the sounds within our speech, and higher-level skills, such as getting meaning by listening to someone speak or creating sentences to express thoughts.
Your child may take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of reading skills analyzed by a reading expert. Dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Dyslexia takes away an individual’s ability to read quickly and automatically, and to retrieve spoken words easily, but it does not dampen their creativity and ingenuity. The first challenge that parents of struggling students face is finding out “who on earth actually diagnoses dyslexia?!?
This means at the very least we need to have some picture of a student’s expressive and receptive vocabulary and their listening/oral comprehension ability. There are TONS of tests you can use to get a picture of this ability depending on qualifications and background but we like to use the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-4) in our clinic to get a very basic picture of these skills. Orthographic competence is the ability for a student to see visual symbols of a letter and quickly attribute meaning to the symbol. We like to use the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP-2) Rapid Naming subtests, the Word Identification & Spelling Test , or another measure of rapid naming to get a clear picture of a student’s orthographic competence. Thinking back to that literacy processing triangle (….you know the one we are obsessed with) we absolutely must be able to measure all the connection points. Students with dyslexia will usually have relatively circumscribed weaknesses in areas such as phonological processing, but their broad oral language comprehension will typically be in the average range or higher.